TCP/IP Model

This model has the same purpose as the OSI model but fits better into modern network troubleshooting. Comparing to the OSI model, TCP/IP is a 4-layer model:

  • Application layer (4) – includes application, presentation and session layers of the OSI model, which significantly simplifies network troubleshooting;
  • Transport layer (3) – same as a transport layer in the OSI model (TCP, UDP protocols);
  • Internet layer (2) – does the same as Network layer in the OSI model (include ARP, IP protocols);
  • Link layer (1) – also called the Network Access layer. Includes both Layer1 and 2 of the OSI model, therefore its primary concern is physical data exchange between network nodes;
TCP/IPOSI ModelProtocols
TCP/IPOSI ModelProtocols
Application LayerApplication LayerDNS, DHCP,HTTP,SSH etc.
Application LayerJPEG,MPEG,PICT etc.
Session LayerPAP, SCP, ZIP etc.
Transport LayerTransport LayerTCP, UDP
Internet LayerNetwork LayerICMP, IGMP, IPv4, IPv6, IPSec
Link LayerData Link LayerARP, CDP, MPLS, PPP etc.
Physical LayerBluetooth, Ethernet, Wi-Fi etc.

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